Continental carbonates are markedly influenced by hydrodynamics and geochemistry, like their marine relatives, but many fundamental dynamics are quite different. In this paper, Gierlowski-Kordesch et al. explore the genesis and depositional conditions that produce extensive carbonate lakes on siliciclastic floodplains in the fossil record by a literature review of Phanerozoic river systems and by examining several Pennsylvanian freshwater limestones of the Appalachian Basin. The results of the study reveal that climate is not the most important control; instead, a Ca-rich provenance and hydraulic setting (below the regional spring line) are most important factors favoring accumulation of thick carbonate lake successions among distal anastomosed river deposits.
Carbonate lake deposits associated with distalsiliciclastic perennial-river systems by Elizabeth Gierlowski-Kordesch, David B. Finkelstein, Jessie J. Truchan Holland, and Kevin D. Kallini